The office of prime minister developed in Britain in the 18th century, when King George I ceased to attend ministerial meetings and the head of government was left to powerful prime ministers. Sir Robert Walpole is generally considered Britain’s first prime minister. This is a chronological list of prime ministers from the past to the most recent.
- Robert Walpole (1721-42)
- Spencer Compton (1742–43)
- Henry Pelham (1743–54)
- Thomas Pelham-Holles (1754–56; 1st time)
- William Cavendish (1756-57)
- Thomas Pelham-Holles (1757-62; 2nd edition)
- John Stuart (1762–63)
- George Grenville (1763–65)
- Charles Watson Wentworth (1765-66; 1st edition)
- William Pitt, Sr. (1766-68)
- Augustus Henry Fitzroy (1768-70)
- Frederick North (1770-82)
- Charles Watson Wentworth (1782; 2nd edition)
- William Petty-Fitzmaurice (1782-83)
- William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (1783; 1st edition)
- William Pitt, Jr. (1783–1801; 1st time)
- Henry Addington (1801-04)
- William Pitt, Jr. (1804-06; 2nd time)
- William Wyndham Grenville (1806-07)
- William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (1807-09; 2nd edition)
- Spencer Perceval (1809-12)
- Robert Banks Jenkinson (1812-27)
- George Canning (1827)
- Frederick John Robinson (1827–28)
- Arthur Wellesley (1828-30; 1st edition)
- Charles Gray (1830-34)
- William Lamb (1834; 1st time)
- Arthur Wellesley (1834; 2nd edition)
- Robert Peel (1834-35; 1st time)
- William Lamb (1835–41; 2nd edition)
- Robert Peel (1841–46; 2nd edition)
- John Russell (1846–52; 1st edition)
- Edward Geoffrey Stanley (1852; 1st time)
- George Hamilton-Gordon (1852-55)
- Henry John Temple (1855–58; 1st edition)
- Edward Geoffrey Stanley (1858–59; 2nd edition)
- Henry John Temple (1859–65; 2nd edition)
- John Russell (1865–66; 2nd edition)
- Edward Geoffrey Stanley (1866–68; 3rd edition)
- Benjamin Disraeli (1868; 1st time)
- William Ewart Gladstone (1868-74; 1st edition)
- Benjamin Disraeli (1874–80; 2nd edition)
- William Ewart Gladstone (1880-85; 2nd edition)
- Robert Cecil (1885-86; 1st edition)
- William Ewart Gladstone (1886; 3rd time)
- Robert Cecil (1886–92; 2nd edition)
- William Ewart Gladstone (1892-94; 4th time)
- Archibald Philip Primrose (1894–95)
- Robert Cecil (1895–1902; 3rd edition)
- Arthur James Balfour (1902-05)
- Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1905-08)
- H. H. Asquith (1908–16)
- David Lloyd George (1916-22)
- Bonar Act (1922-23)
- Stanley Baldwin (1923-24; 1st edition)
- Ramsay Macdonald (1924; 1st time)
- Stanley Baldwin (1924-29; 2nd edition)
- Ramsay Macdonald (1929-35; 2nd edition)
- Stanley Baldwin (1935-37; 3rd edition)
- Neville Chamberlain (1937-40)
- Winston Churchill (1940-45; 1st edition)
- Clement Attlee (1945-51)
- Winston Churchill (1951–55; 2nd edition)
- Anthony Eden (1955-57)
- Harold Macmillan (1957–63)
- Alec Douglas-Home (1963-64)
- Harold Wilson (1964-70; 1st time)
- Edward Heath (1970-74)
- Harold Wilson (1974-76; 2nd edition)
- James Callaghan (1976-79)
- Margaret Thatcher (1979-90)
- John Major (1990-97)
- Tony Blair (1997-2007)
- Gordon Brown (2007-10)
- David Cameron (2010-16)
- Theresa May (2016–19)
- Boris Johnson (2019–)
Prime Minister, additionally known as Prime Minister, Head of state in a very country with a parliamentary or semi-presidential form of government. In such systems, the prime minister – virtually the “first” or most vital minister – should be able to hold a permanent majority within the general assembly (usually a lower house in a very bicameral system).
Development of the Prime Minister’s workplace
Most countries with prime ministers have 2 leaders, the top of state (prime minister) and therefore the head of state (generally either a president UN agency isn’t AN govt president or a hereditary monarch). the top of state formally appoints the prime minister, UN agency successively selects different cupboard ministers. In follow, however, the top of state’s choices area unit typically quite restricted (except in semi-resident systems); it’s typically restricted to the leader of the most important party or coalition within the general assembly (usually the lower house of the bicameral system). though the origins of the title consist 17th-century France, wherever Cardinal Delaware Armand Jean du Plessis was declared prime minister or prime minister in 1624, the workplace basically developed in Great Britain within the eighteenth century, once the king not attended or attended his ministerial conferences. . this transformation left powerful premieres for the role of chief govt of the govt – for instance, Robert Walpole (1721-42), UN agency is usually thought-about Britain’s 1st prime minister, and William Pitt, Jr. (1783-1801; 1804-06). throughout his long run, the Prime Minister became the leading member of the govt, overseeing and coordinating the work of all government departments; different cupboard members were needed to own a proper government policy; and therefore the prime minister was needed to steer a majority within the lower house – all qualities area unit shared by trendy prime ministers.
Since the origin of the Prime Minister, the holders have targeted on the foremost necessary or strategic aspects of state, specifically commanding external relations, key defense selections, political economy policies and therefore the government’s legislative timetable and priorities. . Therefore, the connection between the Prime Minister and therefore the Foreign and Finance Ministers (Defense Ministers in times of conflict) may be a key indicator of the government’s success. In modern world, the role of the Prime Minister has been reinforced by the looks of international summits and conferences of heads of state (eg regular conferences of the heads of state of the members of the ecu Union) as key events in international diplomacy.
However, the role and influence of premieres (using their own political resources) is decreasing with the inflated specialization of state and therefore the enlarged role of bureaucracies and government professionals. within the uk, for instance, within the late Nineteen Eighties, Conservative Prime Minister stateswoman in person intervened to create changes in Britain’s soccer pitches, like the installation of steel drills in crowds to combat the “hooliganism” of politically embarrassing soccer. However, these changes upset the fragile balance between crowd management and crowd safety, and were later abandoned once the deaths of quite ninety soccer fans in 1989, UN agency were pushed against the gardens at Hillsborough arena in city. Similarly, the “survey tax” introduced by Thatcher – AN unpopular native tax that demanded each the wealthy and therefore the poor at constant rate, verified not possible to implement and was abolished 2 years once its introduction at a value of billions of pounds. Indeed, the general public backlash against the introduction of the tax angry opposition from Conservative members of the House of Commons, business for Thatcher to resign as prime minister and being replaced by his Chancellor, John Major. These examples illustrate that political communities in many various areas of state will gain elaborated data of problems that prime ministers will ignore – typically at their own risk. In most countries, premieres have wanted to alleviate these impact constraints by putting in their own skilled staffs and putting in units to observe the implementation of their key methods and priorities. However, there’s very little proof that such centralization of policies will work.
Most countries in the world have now created the post of Prime Minister (alternatively, it is also called the Prime Minister or Chancellor). However, the United States and many African and Latin American countries have introduced a presidential system consisting of an active president (who is also the head of state) and a separation of legislative and executive powers. In these countries, the president chooses his own cabinet or government, which is not dependent on legislative support to remain in office (see United States Presidential Office). Indeed, while in parliamentary systems, the legislature can remove prime ministers by a simple vote of confidence, executive officers can only be removed through more cumbersome prosecutions for more serious crimes or abuse of office.
Variations in office role and capacity
Although the office of Prime Minister exists in most countries, there are differences in the functioning and organization of the Office. The framework of a secure Prime Minister has been ascertained to be at its purest in the United Kingdom and early countries of the British Conglomerate, especially India, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The prime minister does not have a large executive department, but he controls the central direction of policy by selecting all cabinet ministers and junior ministers; defining the government’s legislative agenda and strongly influencing economic priorities; leading the civil service; determining the structure and activities of the government (eg by creating new departments or determining which cabinet committees make which decisions); and leading a majority in parliament. The strong prime ministers of these so-called Westminster systems are often given significant constitutional powers, including the power to change the structure of ministries (and thus the number of powers of cabinet colleagues) as an executive, without seeking new legislation. They may also dissolve the legislature and hold new elections at any time during their term of office (although the British Prime Minister exercises this power only by agreement); this power is quite useful in enabling the prime minister to hold elections at politically favorable times. New prime ministers are usually strong immediately after an election; their power and prestige may collapse as the government becomes unpopular. As Britain and most Commonwealth countries have introduced pluralistic national electoral systems, coalition governments are rare in Westminster systems and their presence (as in India in the 1990s and early 21st century) has significantly reduced the prime minister’s political dominance (see pluralism system).
The strong model of the Prime Minister is admired because it provides clear and decisive political leadership. It takes a slightly different form in several major European countries; for example, in Germany, Greece, Spain and Sweden, premieres have considerable authority, although the political system in these nations dissents from the City of Westminster framework, functioning with relative elections and alliance governments. In such countries, the key factor is that the prime ministers lead large and integrated parties and have significant constitutional power. At the end of the 20th century, Israeli prime ministers were hindered by the change of coalitions and the collapse of the party system, which led to legislation in the mid-1990s by the Knesset (parliament) introducing direct elections to the prime minister. With the intention of improving the prime minister’s position against parliamentary coalitions, this step backfired and the new legislation actually further fragmented the party system; consequently, it was soon revoked.
The prime ministers of semiconductor systems (eg France, Finland, European nation and South Korea) area unit a special case. Such systems embody each a directly elective president with some vital “reserved” government powers and a chief minister appointed by the president United Nations agency should maintain a majority in parliament. once the presidential party or coalition conjointly controls the legislative majority (as in France below President Charles Delaware Gaulle), the prime minister is usually a secondary figure United Nations agency is liable for the regular management of the govt and therefore the presidential legislative agenda. . The president has the correct to rent and dismiss the prime minister from among the leaders of his party. The President is additionally at the forefront of foreign and programme and alternative strategic areas. However, the workplace of prime minister is far a lot of vital in periods of “shared government” once one party or coalition controls the presidency and a competitory party or coalition retains a majority in parliament. In periods called inhabitancy in France, the president typically appoints the pinnacle of a majority in parliament as prime minister. The prime minister heads a cupboard or government that consists solely of the ministers of his own party or coalition, and therefore the role of the prime minister is comparable to it of a baron, United Nations agency should get beside a strong chairman. throughout beingness, the president’s influence is commonly restricted to matters wherever there’s a casual agreement between the president and therefore the prime minister and to any “reserved areas” wherever the constitution specifically needs the president’s participation and agreement, typically foreign affairs, defense and major economic policies. The Prime Minister (as well because the Ministers concerned) has to get beside the President by dynamical enough policies to avoid a stalemate, despite 2 leaders from totally different parties. A palmy prime minister during a cohabiting government is commonly seen as a challenge to the president within the next election.
There is the newest, very short version of the Prime Minister’s workplace, that seems in countries with terribly sturdy presidents and political resources to influence electoral and legislative policies so as to “create” their majority. within the Nineties, the Russian pres. Boris Yeltsin was ready to get the approval of his prime ministerial candidates, despite the very fact that his supporters failed to have a majority within the State Duma and therefore the majority of representatives were typically hostile to his government. His successor, solon, bit by bit used a lot of power to see however parties contend in elections and the way the Duma works, making certain the legislative support of his government and reducing the role of prime minister consequently. however, the Prime Minister is constitutionally second within the order of the President.
There area unit several variations in every model over time and counting on the various characteristics of the folks in workplace as Prime Minister. arch and magnetic politicians in systems wherever prime ministers area unit typically weaker will use rather more power and influence than their predecessors. and frequently sturdy prime ministerial systems will gift exceptional political conditions (e.g., once the govt is unable to command the bulk or once the govt is deeply unpopular) that diminish the conventional power of the post holder. The role of the prime minister in partisan systems typically varies sharply counting on whether or not the govt divides the govt or has management of the presidency and therefore the government by a similar party. Prepositions should exist in some presidential systems (eg Russia), wherever the constitutional powers given on the presidency area unit massive.